Sun damage and pigmentation
Solar UV radiation unquestionably is the single major factor responsible for skin ageing. This specific damage occurs by chronic (multiple) exposure of the skin to UV light. Clinically, the skin becomes coarse; epidermis thickens (hyperplasia) initially and then thins (atrophy), there is laxity, sallowness with wrinkles.
Good skin texture is even, smooth, and healthy-looking. Enlarged pores, acne, oily or dry skin, and roughness will all follow severe sun damage.
Dark spots on the skin, also called hyperpigmentation, occur when melanin, the pigment that gives the skin its colour, is overproduced in the skin, and is often caused by sun exposure, age, hormonal influences, and skin injuries or inflammation. Freckles, age spots, and melasma caused by pregnancy are common forms of hyperpigmentation.